Course is designed to meet the need of DGCA syllabus & pass exams with excellent results. Every concept is explained in detail so that you can understand and more importantly apply this knowledge in your successful aviation career.

Our Ground School covers all subjects (Technical General, Meteorology, Navigation, Air Laws and RTR) complete study material, Flight Computer and Uniforms are provided by the Academy.

Classes can be attended on site or from comfort of your home through one of a kind live interactive session o and on site complete revision module 3-4weeks before the exam or through a completely online session.

Kindly get in touch with us for further information.


Basics of Navigation

  • The solar system
    • seasonal and apparent movements of the sun
  • The earth
    • great circle, small circle, rhumb line
    • convergency, conversion angle
    • latitude, difference of latitude
    • longitude, difference of longitude
    • use of latitude and longitude co-ordinates to locate any specific position
  • Time and time conversions
    • apparent time
    • UTC
    • LMT
    • standard times
    • international dateline
  • Directions
    • terrestrial magnetism: declination, deviation and compass variations
    • magnetic poles, isogonals, relationship between true and magnetic
  • Distance
    • units of distance and height used in navigation: nautical miles, statute miles, kilometers, metres, yards and feet
    • conversion from one unit to another
    • relationship between nautical miles and minutes of latitude

b) Magnetism and Compasses

  • General principles
    • terrestrial magnetism
    • resolution of the earth’s total magnetic force into vertical and horizontal components
    • the effects of change of latitude on these components
    • directive force
    • magnetic dip
    • variation
  • Aircraft magnetism
    • hard iron and vertical soft iron
    • the resulting magnetic fields
    • the variation in directive force
    • Change of deviation with change of latitude and with change in aircraft’s heading
    • turning and acceleration errors
    • keeping magnetic materials clear of the compass
    • knowledge of the principles, standby and landing or main compasses and remote reading compasses
    • detailed knowledge of the use of these compasses
    • serviceability tests
    • advantages and disadvantages of the remote indicating compasses
    • adjustment and compensation of direct reading magnetic compass

c) Charts

  • General properties of the miscellaneous type of projections
    • Mercator
    • Lambert conformal conic
    • Polar stereographic
    • Transverse Mercator
    • Oblique Mercator
  • The representation of meridians, parallels, great circles, and rhumb lines
    • direct Mercator
    • Lambert conformal conic
    • Polar Stereographic
  • The use of current aeronautical charts
    • plotting positions
    • methods of indicating scale and relief
    • conventional signs
    • measuring tracks and distances
    • plotting bearings

d) Dead Reckoning Navigation (DR)

  • Basics of dead reckoning
    • track
    • heading (compass, magnetic, true, grid)
    • wind velocity
    • airspeed (IAS, CAS, TAS, Mach number)
    • ground speed
    • ETA
    • drift, wind correction angle
    • DR-position, fix
  • Use of the navigational computer
    • speed
    • time
    • distance
    • fuel consumption
    • conversions
    • heading
    • airspeed
    • wind velocity
  • The triangle of velocities, methods of solution for the determination of
    • heading
    • ground speed
    • wind velocity
    • track and drift angle, track error
    • time and distance problems
  • Determination of DR position
    • need for DR
    • confirmation of flight progress (mental DR)
    • lost procedures
    • heading and TAS vector since last confirmed position
    • application of wind velocity vector
    • last known track and ground speed vector
    • assessment of accuracy of DR position
  • Measurement of DR elements
    • calculation of altitude, adjustments, corrections, errors
    • determination of temperature
    • determination of appropriate speed
    • determination of mach number
  • Resolution of current DR problems by means of
    • mercator charts
    • lambert charts
    • polar stereographic projections
  • Measurement of
    • maximum range
    • radius of action
    • point-of-safe-return and point-of-equal-time
    • Miscellaneous DR uncertainties and practical means of correction

e) In-flight Navigation

  • Use of visual observations and application to in-flight navigation
  • Navigation in climb descent
    • average airspeed
    • average wind velocity
    • ground speed/distance covered during climb or descent
  • Navigation in cruising flight, use of fixes to revise navigation data as
    • ground speed revision
    • off-track corrections
    • calculation of wind speed and direction
    • ETA revisions
  • Flight log (including navigation records)

Mass and Balance – Aeroplanes

  1. Introduction to Mass and Balance Centre of gravity (cg): Definition, importance in regard to aircraft stability (Aeroplane)
    • Mass and balance
    • consult aeroplane flight manual for: cg limits for take-off, landing, cruise configurations
    • maximum floor load
    • maximum ramp and taxi mass (Aeroplane)
    • factors determining maximum permissible mass : structural limitations, performance limitations such as – runway available for take-off and landing, weather conditions (temperature, pressure, wind, precipitation); rate-of-climb and altitude requirements for obstacle clearance; engine-out performance requirements
    • factors determining cg limits: aircraft stability, ability of flight controls and surfaces to overcome mass and lift pitching moments under all flight conditions, changes in cg location during flight due to consumption of fuel, raising and lowering of undercarriage, and intentional relocation of passengers or cargo, transfer of fuel, movement of centre of lift because of changes in position of wing flaps
  1. Loading
    • Terminology: empty mass, dry operating mass (empty mass + crew + operating items + unusable fuel), zero fuel mass, standard mass – crew, passengers and baggage, fuel, oil water (volume/mass conversion factors), carry-on luggage, useful load (traffic load + usable fuel
    • Effects of overloading: high take-off and safety speeds, longer take-off and landing distances, lower rate-of-climb, influence on range and endurance, decreased engine-out performance, possible structural damage in extreme cases
  1. Centre of Gravity (cg)
    • basic of cg calculations (load and balance documentation)
      • Datum – explanation of term, location, use in cg calculation
      • Moment arm – explanation of term, determination of algebric signs, use
      • Moment – explanation, moment = mass x moment arm
      • Expression in percentage of mean aerodynamic chord (% MAC)
    • Calculation of cg
    • Effect of load-shift
      • movement of cg. Possible out of limits
      • possible damage due to inertia of a moving load
      • effect of acceleration of the aircraft load


Performance of Single-Engine Aeroplanes

  • definitions of terms and speeds used
  • Take-off and landing performance
    • Effect of aeroplane mass, wind, density, altitude, runway slope, runway conditions
    • Use of aeroplane flight manual data
  • Climb and cruise performance
    • use of aeroplane flight data
    • effect of density altitude and aeroplane mass
    • endurance and the effects of the different recommended power settings
    • still air range with various power settings

Performance of Multi-Engine Aeroplanes

  • definitions of terms and speeds used
    • any new terms used for multi-engine aeroplane performance
  • Importance of performance calculations
    • determination of performance under normal conditions
    • consideration of effects of pressure altitude, temperature, wind, aeroplane mass, runway slope, and runway conditions
  • Elements of performance
    • take-off and landing distances
      • obstacle clearance at take-off
  • rate of climb and descent
    • effects of selected power settings, speeds, and aircraft configuration
  • Cruise altitudes and altitude ceiling
    • en-route requirements
  • Payload/range trade-offs
  • Speed/economy trade-offs
  • Use of performance graphs and tabulated data
    • performance section of flight manual

Flight Planning and Monitoring – Aeroplanes

Flight Plans for Cross Country Flights

  • Navigation Plan
    • selection of routes, speeds, heights (altitudes) and alternate airfield/landing sites
      • terrain and obstacle clearance
      • cruising levels appropriate for direction of flight
      • navigation check points, visual or radio
    • measurement of tracks and distances
    • obtaining wind velocity forecast for each leg
    • computations of headings, ground speeds, and time en-route from tracks, true airspeed and wind velocities
    • completion of pre-flight portion of navigation flight log
  • Fuel Plan
    • computation of planned fuel usage for each leg and total fuel usage for the flight
      • flight manual figures for fuel flow during climb, en- route and during descent
      • navigation plan for times en-route
    • fuel for holding and diversion to alternate airfield
    • reserves
    • total fuel requirements for flight
    • completion of pre-flight portion of fuel log
  • Flight monitoring and in-flight re-planning
    • in-flight fuel computations
      • recording of fuel quantities remaining at navigational checkpoints
    • calculation of actual consumption rate
      • comparison of actual and planned fuel consumption and fuel state
    • Revision of fuel reserve estimates
    • in-flight re-planning in case of problems
      • selection of cruise altitude and power settings for new destination
      • time to new destination
      • fuel state, fuel requirements, fuel reserves
  • Radio communication and navigation aids
    • communication frequencies and call signs for appropriate control agencies and in-flight service facilities such as weather stations
    • radio navigation and approach aids, if appropriate
    • type
    • frequencies
    • identification

b) ICAO ATC Flight Plan

  • types of flight plan
    • ICAO flight plan – format
    • completing the flight plan
  • Filling the flight plan
    • procedures for filing
    • agency responsible for processing the flight plan
  • Adherence to flight plan

c) Practical Flight Planning

  • Chart preparation
    • Plot tracks and measure directions and distances
  • Navigation plans
    • Completing the navigation plan using:
      • tracks and distances from prepared charts
      • wind velocities as provided
      • true airspeeds as appropriate
  • Simple fuel plans
    • Preparation of fuel logs showing planned values for:
      • fuel used on each leg
      • fuel remaining at the end of each leg
      • endurance, based on fuel remaining and planned consumption rate, at end of each leg
  • Radio planning practice
    • Communications
      • frequencies and call signs of air traffic control agencies and facilities and for in-flight services such as weather information

d) Practical Completion of a ‘Flight Plan’ (flight plan, flight log, nav log ATC plan, etc.)

  • Extraction of data
    • extraction of navigational data
    • extraction of meteorological data
    • extraction of performance data
    • completion of navigation flight plan
    • completion of fuel plan
      • time and fuel to top-of-climb
      • cruise sector times and fuel used
      • total time and fuel required to destination
      • fuel required for missed approach, climb en- route altitude, and cruise alternate
      • reserve fuel
  • Completion of air traffic flight plan

Radio Aids

  • Ground D/F (including classification of bearings)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • ADF (including associated beacons and use of the radio magnetic indicator)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • VOR and Doppler – VOR (including the use of the radio magnetic indicator)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • DME (distance measuring equipment)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • ILS (Instrument Landing System)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy

b) Basic Radar Principles

  • SSR secondary surveillance radar and transponder
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • modes and codes, including mode S

c) Self-contained and External-Referenced Navigation Systems

  • Satellite assisted navigation: GPS / GLONASS
    • principle of operation
    • advantages and disadvantages


Flight Instruments

  1. Air data instruments
    • pitot and static system
      • pitot tube, construction, and principles of operation
      • static source
      • malfunction
      • heating
  • alternate static source
  • Altimeter
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display and setting
    • errors
    • correction tables
    • tolerances
  • Airspeed indicator
    • construction and principles of operation
    • speed indications (IAS)
    • meaning of colored sectors
    • maximum speed indicator, VMO, MMO pointer
    • errors
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
    • aneroid and instantaneous VSI (IVSI)
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display

Gyroscopic instruments

  • Gyro fundamentals
    • theory of gyroscopic forces (stability, precession)
    • types, and principles of operation:
      • vertical gyro
      • directional gyro
      • rate gyro
      • rate integrating gyro
    • single-degree-of-freedom gyro
    • ring laser gyro
    • apparent drift
    • random drift
    • mountings
    • drive types, monitoring
  • Directional gyro
    • construction and principles of operation
  • Slaved gyro compass
    • construction and principles of operation
    • components
    • mounting and modes of operation
    • turn and acceleration errors
    • the application uses of output data
  • Attitude indicator (vertical gyro)
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display types
    • turn and acceleration errors
    • the application uses of output data
  • Turn and bank indicator (rate gyro)
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display types
    • application, uses of output data
    • turn coordinator
  1. Magnetic Compass
    • construction and principles of operation
    • errors (deviation, the effect of inclination)
  1. Radio Altimeter
    • components
    • frequency band
    • principle of operation
    • displays
    • errors

Power Plant and System Monitoring Instruments

  • Pressure Gauge
    • sensors
    • pressure indicators
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  • Temperature Gauge
    • ram rise, recovery factor
  • RPM Indicator
    • interfacing of signal pick-up to RPM gauge
    • RPM indicators, piston and turbine engines
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  • Consumption Gauge
    • high-pressure line fuel flowmeter (function, indications, failure warnings)
  • Fuel Gauge
    • measurement of volume/mass, units
    • measuring sensors
    • content, quantity indicators
    • reasons for incorrect indications
  • Torque Meter
    • indicators, units
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  • Basics of Electronic Displays
    • EFIS
    • EICAS
    • ECAM
    • FMS
  • Basic radio propagation theory
    • Basic principles
    • Electromagnetic waves
    • Wave length, amplitude, phase angle, frequency
    • Frequency bands, side band, single side band
    • Pulse characteristics
    • Carrier, modulation, demodulation
    • Kind of modulation (amplitude, frequency, pulse, multiplex)
    • Oscillation circuit
  • Antennas
    • Characteristics
    • Polarization
    • Types of antennas
  • Wave propagation
    • Ground wave
    • Space wave
    • Propagation with the frequency bands
    • Frequency prognosis (MUF)
    • fading
    • Factors affecting propagation (reflection, absorption, interference, twilight, shoreline, mountain, static)


The Atmosphere

  • Composition, extent, vertical division
  • Temperature
    • vertical distribution of temperature
    • transfer of heat: solar and terrestrial radiation, conduction, convection, advection and turbulence
    • lapse rate, stability and instability
    • development of inversions, types of inversions
    • temperature near the earth’s surface, surface effects, diurnal
    • variation, effect of clouds, effect of wind
  • Atmospheric pressure
    • barometric pressure, isobars
    • pressure variation with height, contours (isohypses)
    • reduction of pressure to mean sea level, QFF
    • surface low/upper-air low, surface high/upper-air high- precipitation
  • Atmospheric density: interrelationship of pressure, temperature, and density
  • International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
  • Altimetry
    • pressure altitude, true altitude
    • height, altitude, flight level
    • altimeter settings: QNH, QFE, 1013.25 hPa
    • effect of accelerated airflow due to topography

1.2 Wind

  1. Definition and measurement
  2. Primary cause of wind
    • primary cause of wind, pressure gradient, coriolis force, gradient wind
    • relationship between isobars and wind
  1. General circulation
    • general circulation around the globe
  1. Turbulence
    • Turbulence and gustiness, types of turbulence
    • origin and location of turbulence
  1. Variation of wind with height
    • variation of wind in the friction layer
  1. Local winds: Anabatic and katabatic winds, land and sea breezes, venturi effects
  2. Standing waves
    • origin of standing waves

1.3 Thermodynamics

  1. Humidity
    • water vapour in the atmosphere
    • temperature / dew point, mixing ratio, relative humidity

1.4 Clouds and Fog

  1. Clouds formation and description
    • cloud types, cloud classification
    • influence of inversions on cloud development
  1. Fog, mist, haze
    • radiation fog
    • advection fog
    • steaming fog
    • frontal fog
    • orographic fog

1.5 Precipitation

  1. Development of precipitation
    • development of precipitation
    • types of precipitation
    • type of precipitation, relationship with cloud types

1.6 Airmasses and Fronts

  1. Types of airmasses
    • description, factors, affecting the properties of an airmass
    • classification of airmasses, modifications of airmasses, areas of origin
  1. Fronts
    • boundaries between airmasses (fronts), general situation, geographic differentiation
    • warm front, associated clouds and weather
    • cold front, associated clouds and weather
    • Warm sector, associated clouds and weather
    • weather behind the cold front
    • occlusions, associated clouds and weather
    • stationary front, associated clouds and weather
    • movement of fronts and pressure systems, life cycle

1.7 Pressure Systems

  • Location of the principal pressure areas
  • Anticyclone: Anticyclones, types, general properties, cold and warm anticyclones, ridges and wedges, subsidence
  • Non frontal depressions
    • thermal, orographic – and secondary depressions, cold air pools, trough
  • Tropical revolving storms

1.8 Climatology

  1. Typical weather situations in mid-latitudes
    • westerly waves
    • high pressure area
    • uniform pressure pattern
  2. Local seasonal weather and wind
    • SE & NE Monsoon, Pre-Monsoon, Northwesters, Kalbaisakhi
    • Western Disturbance

1.9 Flight Hazards

  1. Icing
    • weather conditions for ice accretion, topographical effects
  1. Turbulence
    • effects on flight, avoidance
  1. Windshear
    • definition of windshear
    • weather conditions for windshear
    • effects on flight
  1. Thunderstorms
    • structure of thunderstorms, squall lines, life history, storm cells, electricity in the atmosphere, static charges
    • conditions for and process of development, forecast, location, type specification
    • Thunderstorm avoidance, ground/airborne radar, storm scope
    • development and effect of down bursts
    • development of lightning discharge and effect of lightning strike on aircraft and flight execution
  1. Low and high level inversions: Influence on aircraft performance
  1. Hazards in mountainous areas
    • influence of terrain on clouds and precipitation, frontal passage
    • vertical movements, mountain waves, windshear, turbulence, ice accretion
    • development and effect of valley inversions
  1. Visibility reducing phenomena
    • reduction of visibility caused by mist, smoke, dust, sand and precipitation
    • reduction of visibility caused by low drifting and blowing snow

1.10. Meteorological Information

  1. Observation
    • On the ground – surface wind, visibility and runway visual range, transmissometers; Clouds – type, amount, height of base and tops, movement; Weather – including all types of precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, atmospheric pressure
    • aircraft observations and reporting, data link systems, PIREPS

2. Weather Charts

      • significant weather charts
      • surface charts
      • upper air charts
      • symbols and signs on analysed and prognostic charts

3. Information for Flight Planning

    • Aeronautical codes: METAR, TAF, SPECI, SIGMET, SNOWTAM, runway report
    • Meteorological broadcasts for aviation: VOLMET, ATIS, HFVOLMET, ACARS
    • Content and use of pre-flight meteorological documents
    • Meteorological briefing and advice
    • measuring and warning systems for low level windshear, inversion
    • Special meteorological warnings


International Agreements and Organizations

  1. The Convention of Chicago Air Navigation
    • General principles and application: sovereignty, territory
    • Flight over territory of Contracting states: right of non-scheduled flight, scheduled air services, cabotage, landing at customs airports, applicability of air regulations, rules of the air, search of
    • Documents to be carried in aircraft
    • International standards and recommended practices: adoption of international standards and procedures, endorsement of certificates and licenses, validity of endorsed certificates and licenses: departure from international standards and procedures (notification of differences)
  1. The International Civil Aviation Organization
    • objective and composition
    • duties in relation to – annexes to the convention, standards and recommended practices, procedures for air navigation services, regional supplementary procedures, regional air navigation, manuals and circulars
  1. Other International Agreements
    • The International Air Transport Agreement – the five freedoms
    • The Convention of Tokyo, La Haye, Montreal – Jurisdiction, authority of pilot-in-command of the aircraft
    • DGCA India: Organization and Structure – Indian organizations name, composition, objectives and relevant documents (Aircraft Act 1934, Indian Aircraft Rules 1937)
    • Civil Aviation Requirements
    • Warsaw Convention
  1. PIC authority and responsibility regarding safety and security
  2. Operators and pilots liabilities towards persons and goods on the ground, in case of damage and injury caused by the operations of the aircraft
  3. Commercial practices and associated rules

1.2 Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft

– applicability

1.3 Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks

– applicability

1.4 Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing

  • applicability
  • the relation between Annex 1 and CARs

1.5 Rules of the Air (Based on Annex 2)

– Annex 2: essential definitions, applicability of the rules of the air, general rules (except water operations), visual flight flights, instrument flight rules, signals, interception of civil aircraft, table of cruising levels

1.6 Procedures for Air Navigation – Aircraft Operations Doc. 8168,

Volume 1

  1. Foreword – introduction
  2. Definitions and abbreviations (see general statements)
  3. Departure procedures – general criteria, standard instrument departures, omni-directional departures, published information, simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument runways, area navigation (RNAV) departure procedures based on VOR/DME, use of FMS/RNAV equipment to follow conventional departure procedures
  4. Approach procedures
    • general criteria (except tables)
    • approach procedures design : instrument approach areas, accuracy of fixes (only intersection fix tolerance factors, other fix tolerance factors, accuracy of facility providing track, approach area splays, descent gradient)
    • arrival and approach segments : general, standard instrument arrival, initial approach segment (only general), intermediate approach segment, final approach segment (except tables), missed approach segment (only general)
    • visual manoeuvring (circling) in the vicinity of the aerodrome: general, the visual manoeuvring (circling) area (except table), visual manoeuvring (circling) area not considered for obstacle clearance (except table), minimum

descent altitude/height, visual flight manoeuvre, missed approach whilst circling.

    • Simultaneous ILS operations on parallel or near-parallel runways
    • Area navigation (RNAV) approach procedures based on VOR/DME
    • Use of FMS/RNAV equipment to follow conventional non- precision approach procedures
  1. Holding procedures
    • in-flight procedures (except table), entry, holding
    • obstacle clearance (except table)
  1. Altimeter setting procedures (including ICAO Doc. 7030- Regional Supplementary Procedures) – basic requirements (except tables), procedures
  2. Secondary surveillance radar transponder operating procedures (including ICAO Doc. 7030 – Regional Supplementary Procedures)
    • operation of transponders
    • operation of ACAS equipment
    • phraseology

1.7 Air Traffic Services (based on Annex 11 and Doc. 4444)

  1. Air Traffic Services – Annex 11 : Definitions (see general statements)
  2. General
    • objectives of ATS, divisions of ATS, designation of the portions of the airspace and controlled aerodromes where ATS will be provided, classification of airspaces (appendix 4 of Annex 11), required navigation performance (RNP), establishment and designation of the units providing ATS, specifications for flight information regions, control areas and control zones, minimum flight altitudes, priority in the event of an aircraft in emergency, in-flight contingencies, time in ATS
  1. Air Traffic Control
    • application
    • provision of air traffic control service, operations of air traffic control service, separation minima, contents of clearances, co-ordination of clearances
  1. Flight Information Service
    • application
    • scope of flight information service
  1. Alerting Service: application, notification of rescue co-ordination centres (only INCERFA, ALERFA, DETRESFA), information to aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aircraft in a state of emergency
  2. Principles governing the identification of RNP types and the identification of ATS routes other than standard departure and arrival routes (Appendix 1)
  3. Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services (ICAO Doc. 4444 – RAC/501/11 and ICAO Doc. 7030 – Regional Supplementary Procedures)
    • definitions (See general statements)
    • relationship to other document
  1. General provisions
    • general air traffic services operating practices: submission of a flight plan, clearances and information, control of air traffic flow, altimeter setting procedures, indication of heavy wake turbulence category, position reporting, air traffic incident report, procedures in regard to aircraft equipped with airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS)
    • Appendix 1
  1. Area Control Service
    • general provisions for the separation of control traffic
      • vertical separation : vertical separation application, vertical separation minimum, minimum cruising level, assignment of cruising level, vertical separation during ascent or descent
      • horizontal separation: lateral separation application, lateral separation application, longitudinal separation application
      • reduction in separation minima
    • air traffic control clearances: contents, description of air traffic control clearances, clearance to fly maintaining own separations while in visual meteorological conditions, essential traffic information, clearance of a requested change in flight plan
    • emergency and communication failure: emergency procedures (only general priority, emergency descent, action by pilot-in-command), air-ground communication failure (only concerning the actions by pilot-in-command), interception of civil aircraft
  1. Approach Control Service
    • departing aircraft: general procedures for departing aircraft, clearances for departing aircraft to climb maintaining own separation while in visual meteorological conditions, information for departing aircraft
    • arriving aircraft: general procedures for arriving aircraft, clearance to descend subject to maintaining own separation in visual meteorological conditions, visual approach, instrument approach, holding, approach sequence, expected approach time, information for arriving aircraft
  1. Aerodrome Control Service
    • functions of aerodrome control towers: general, alerting service provided by aerodrome control towers, suspension of VFR operations by aerodrome control towers
    • traffic and taxi circuits: selection of runway-in-use
    • information to aircraft by aerodrome control towers: information related to the operation of the aircraft, information on aerodrome conditions
    • control of aerodrome traffic: order of priority for arriving and departing aircraft, control of departing and arriving aircraft, wake turbulence categorization of aircraft and increased longitudinal separation minima, authorization of special VFR flights
  1. Flight Information Service and Altering Service
    • Flight information service
    • Alerting service
  1. Use of radar in Air Traffic Services
    • general provisions: limitations in the use of radar, identification procedures (only establishment of radar identity), position information, radar vectoring
    • use of radar in the air traffic control service

1.8 Aeronautical Information Service (based on Annex 15 and AIP, India)

  • essential definitions
  • applicability

1.9 Aerodromes (Based on Annex 14, Vol. 1 & 2)

  1. Annex 14
    • definitions
    • aerodrome data
    • conditions of the movement area and related facilities
  1. Visual aids for navigation
    • indicators and signaling devices
    • markings
    • lights
    • signs
    • markers
  1. Visual aids for denoting obstacles
    • marking of objects
    • lighting of objects
  1. Visual aids for denoting restricted use of areas
  2. Emergency and other services

– Rescue and fire fighting

    • Apron management services
    • Ground servicing of aircraft
  1. Attachment A to Annex 14
    • calculation of declared distances
    • radio altimeter operating areas
    • approach lighting systems

1.10 Facilitation (based on Annex 9)

  • definitions
  • entry and departure of aircraft – description, purpose and use of aircraft documents general declaration
  • entry and departure of persons and their baggage – entry requirement and procedures for crew and other operator’s personnel

1.11 Search and Rescue (based on Annex 12)

  1. Annex 12 – definitions
  2. Organization
  3. Operating procedures
    • procedures for pilots-in-command at the scene of an accident
    • procedures for pilot-in-command intercepting a distress transmission
    • search and rescue signals
  1. Search and Rescue Signals
    • signals with surface craft
    • ground/air visual signal code
    • air/ground signals

1.12 Security (based on Annex 17)

  1. Annex 17 – General – aims and objectives

1.13 Aircraft Accident Investigation (based on Annex 13)

  1. Annex 13 – definitions, applicability

1.14 CARs : Sections 2, 7 and 8

  • National Law – National Law and differences to relevant ICAO Annexes and Indian aircraft act 1934-section 1,2,8,10,11A,11B, 17&18(3/9)
  • Aircraft Rule 1937- Rule No. 1-19,21-29A.30,33,37A,38- 48,50,52,53,55,65,67,67A,67B,68-70,76,79-89,133A,134,140, 140(AB&C)15&161
  • Schedule I, II, VI, & XI
  • AIRCRAFT RULES 1954 (Public Health Rules) AIRCRAFT RULES 2003 (Carriage of Dangerous Goods)

Human Performance & Limitations

  • Human Factors: Basic Concepts
  1. Human Factors in aviation
    • competence and limitations
    • becoming a competent pilot – the traditional approach towards ‘proficiency’, the human factors approach towards ‘professionalism’
  1. Flight Safety concepts

2.2 Basic Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance

  1. Basics of flight physiology
    • the atmosphere : composition, gas laws, oxygen requirements of tissues
    • Respiratory and circulatory systems: pressurization, decompression, rapid decompression, entrapped gases, barotraumas, counter measures, hypoxia, symptoms, time of useful consciousness, hyperventilation, accelerations
    • High altitude environment: ozone, radiation, humidity
  1. Man and Environment the sensory system
    • integration of sensory inputs : spatial disorientation, illusions, approach and landing problems
  1. Health and Hygiene
    • personal hygiene
    • common minor ailments: cold, influenza, gastro-intestinal upset
    • problem areas for pilots : hearing loss, flight related hazards to hearing, defective vision, hypotension, hypertension, coronary disease, obesity, nutrition hygiene, tropical climates
  • epidemic diseases
    • intoxication: tobacco, alcohol, drugs and self-medication, various toxic materials
    • incapacitation: symptoms and causes, recognition, operating coping procedures

2.3 Basic Aviation Psychology

  1. Human information processing
    • attention and vigilance: selectivity of attention, divided attention
    • perception: perceptual illusions, subjectivity of perception
    • Response selection: learning principles and techniques, drives, motivation and performance
  1. Human error and reliability
    • Reliability of human behaviour
    • Theory and model of human error
    • Error generation
      • Economics
      • Social environment (group, organization)
  1. Decision making
    • decision-making concepts: structure (phases), limits, risk assessment, practical application
  1. Avoiding and managing errors: Cockpit Management
    • safety awareness: risk area awareness, identification of error proneness (oneself), identification of error sources (others), situational awareness stress
    • Co-ordination (multi-crew concepts)
    • Co-operation: small group dynamics, leadership, management styles, duty and role
    • Communication: communication model(s), verbal and non- verbal communication, communication barriers, conflict management
  1. Personality
    • Personality and attitudes : development, environmental influences
    • individual differences in personality: self-concepts (e.g. , action vs. state-orientation)
    • identification of hazardous attitudes (error proneness)
  1. Human overload and under load
    • arousal
    • stress: definitions, anxiety and stress, effects of stress
    • fatigue: types, causes, symptoms, effects of fatigue
    • body rhythm and sleep: rhythm disturbances, symptoms, effects, management, circadian rhythm
    • fatigue and stress management: coping strategies, management techniques, health and fitness programmes, relaxation techniques
  • Advanced cockpit automation
    • advantages and disadvantages (criticalities)
    • automation complacency

Operational Procedures

  • Operational Procedures – Special and Emergency Procedures General:
  1. ICAO Annex 6, Parts I, II and III (as applicable)
    • definitions
    • applicability
    • general framework and contents
  1. CAR-OPS – Requirements
    • General requirements about
      • quality system
      • additional crew members
      • methods of carriage of persons
      • admission to flight deck
      • unauthorized carriage
      • portable electronic devices
      • endangering safety
      • additional information and forms to be carried
      • information retained on ground
      • power to inspect
      • production of documentation and records
      • preservation of documentation
      • leasing
  • Operator certification and supervision requirements
    • general rules for Air Operator Certification
    • issue
  • variation and continued validity of an AOC
  • administrative requirements
  • Operational Procedures requirements
    • operational control and supervision
    • use of Air Traffic Services
    • instrument departure and approach procedures
  • carriage of person with reduced mobility
  • carriage of inadmissible passengers, deportees, or
  • persons in custody
  • stowage of baggage and cargo
  • passengers seating
  • security of passenger cabin and galley(s)
  • smoking on board
  • take-off conditions
  • application of take-off minima’s
  • RVSM
  • All-weather Operations requirements: Low Visibility
    • Aerodrome Operating Minima’s – General
    • Low Visibility Operations – General operating rules
    • Low Visibility Operations – Aerodrome considerations
    • Low Visibility Operations – Training and qualifications
    • Low Visibility Operations – Operating procedures
    • Low Visibility Operations – Minimum equipment
    • VFR Operating Minima
  • Instrument and safety equipment requirements
    • general introduction
    • circuit protection devices
    • windshield wipers
    • airborne weather radar equipment
    • flight crew interphone system
    • public address system
    • internal doors and curtains
    • first aid kits
    • emergency medical kit
    • first aid oxygen
    • supplemental oxygen – pressurized aeroplanes
    • supplemental oxygen – non-pressurized aeroplanes
    • crew protective breathing equipment
    • hand fire extinguishers
    • crash axes and crowbars
  • marking of break-in points
  • means for emergency evacuation
  • megaphones
  • emergency lightings
  • automatic emergency locator transmitter
  • life jackets
  • life rafts and survival ELTs for extended over-water flights
  • survival equipment
  • Communication and navigation equipment requirements
    • radio equipment
    • audio selector panel
    • radio equipment VFR
    • communication and navigation IFR and VFR
  • Flight crew
    • flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements
    • cabin crew

Knowledge of basic navigation equipment, operational and regulatory, requirements for long-range flights in MNPS, Trans-oceanic and polar airspace.

c) Special Operational Procedures and Hazards (General Aspects)

  • Minimum equipment list
    • AFM
  • Ground de-icing
    • icing conditions
    • definition and recognition, on ground/in-flight
    • de-icing, anti-icing, types of de-icing fluids
    • performance deterioration, on ground/in-flight
  • Bird strike risk and avoidance
  • Noise abatement
    • influence by the pilot (power setting, low drag, low power
  • Fire/smoke
    • actions in case of overheated brakes after aborted take-off and landing
  • Decompression of pressurized cabin
    • slow decompression
    • rapid or explosive decompression
    • dangers and action taken
  • Windshear, microburst
    • definition and description
    • effects and recognition during departure and approach
    • actions to avoid and actions taken during encounter
  • Wake turbulence
    • cause
    • influence of speed and mass, wind
    • actions taken when crossing traffic, during take-off and landing
  • Security
    • unlawful events
  • Emergency and precautionary landings operations in various terrain – water (i.e. slopes, mountains, jungle, offshore)
    • definition
    • cause
    • factors to be considered (wind terrain, preparation, flight tactics, landing in various terrain and water)
    • passenger information
    • evacuation
    • action after landing
  • Fuel jettisoning
    • safety aspects
  • Transport of dangerous goods
    • Annex 18
    • practical aspects
  • Contaminated runways
    • kinds of contamination
    • braking action, brake co-efficient
    • performance correction and calculations

3.2 Communications

  • VFR Communications
  1. Definitions
    • Meaning and significance of associated terms
    • Air Traffic Services abbreviations
    • Q-code groups commonly used in RTF air-ground communications
    • Categories of messages
  1. General Operating Procedures
    • Transmission of letters
    • Transmission of numbers (including level information)
    • Transmission of time
    • Transmission technique
    • Standard work and phrases (relevant RTF phraseology included)
    • Radiotelephony call signs for aeronautical stations including use of abbreviated call signs
    • Radiotelephone call signs for aircraft including use of abbreviated call signs
    • Transfer of communication
    • Test procedures including readability scale
    • Read back and acknowledgement requirements
    • Radar procedural phraseology
  1. Relevant Weather information terms (VFR)
    • Aerodrome weather
    • Weather broadcast
  1. Action required to be taken in case of communication failure
  2. Distress and urgency procedures
    • Distress (definition – frequencies – watch of distress frequencies – distress signal – distress message)
    • Urgency (definition – frequencies – urgency signal – urgency message)
  1. General Principles of VHF Propagation and Allocation of Frequencies

3.3 IFR Communications

  1. Definitions
    • Meaning and significance of associated terms
    • Air Traffic Control abbreviations
    • Q-code groups commonly used in RTF air-ground communications
  1. General Operating Procedures
    • Transmission of letters
    • Transmission of numbers (including level information)
    • Transmission of time
    • Transmission of technique
    • Standard words and phrases (relevant RTF phraseology included)
    • Radiotelephony call signs for aeronautical stations including use of abbreviated call signs
    • Radiotelephone call signs for aircraft including use of abbreviated call signs
    • Transfer of communication
    • Test procedures including readability scale; establishment of RTF communications
    • Read back and acknowledgement requirements
    • Radar procedural phraseology
    • Level changes and reports categories of messages
  1. Action required to be taken in case of communication failure
  2. Distress and Urgency Procedures
    • PAN medical
    • Distress (definition – frequencies – watch of distress frequencies – distress signal – distress message)
    • Urgency (definition – frequencies – urgency signal – urgency message)
  1. Relevant Weather Information Terms (IFR)
    • Aerodrome weather
    • Weather broadcast
  2. General Principles of VHF propagation and allocation of frequencies
  3. Morse Code